reproducibility of the modern metre is of the order of

However, the International Prototype Metre remained the standard until 1960, when the eleventh CGPM defined the metre in the new International System of Units (SI) as equal to 1650763.73 wavelengths of the orange-red emission line in the electromagnetic spectrum of the krypton-86 atom in a vacuum. (Precision is the consistency of the instrument output for a given value of input). Particularly difficult is the collection and reporting of details of protocols used in studies that involve complex experimental systems. Improved metadata acquisition software incorporated into laboratory information management systems could facilitate the collecting, sharing, and reporting of details of protocols. The Research Data Alliance has recently started a new Working Group on Persistent Identification of Instruments (2017), which for experimental data could greatly improve provenance through tracing data back to a particular instrument and its associated calibration information. Materials Genome Initiative. Test your experimental observation using orthogonal analytical methods. BMC Bioinformatics, 16, 330., Baker, M. (2015). This is often summed up as, “If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants” (This quotation is widely attributed to Isaac Newton but may originally come from the 12th Century French philosopher, Bernard of Chartres . Availability of data, metadata, and provenance information. Am J Epidemiol, 162(4), 302-304., Jupyter. Definitional challenges associated with reproducibility. When national metrology laboratories around the world compare their measurement results in the formal setting of the BIPM, there are accepted expectations regarding expression of uncertainties in the measurements reported, and how the measurements from different laboratories are compared. These indicators include precision (i.e., repeatability, with statistics such as standard deviation and variance), accuracy (which can be assessed by applying alternative [orthogonal] methods or by comparison to a reference material), sensitivity to environmental or experimental perturbants (by testing for assay robustness to putatively insignificant experimental protocol changes), and the dynamic range and response function of the experimental protocol or assay (and assuring that data points are within that valid range). The sources of variability in a measurement system and how they contribute to measurement uncertainty is an importance concept in measurement science.  The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which is the national metrology institute (NMI) of the United States, and its 100-plus sister laboratories in other countries, promote these concepts for ensuring confidence in measurement results. [57] A commonly used medium is air, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has set up an online calculator to convert wavelengths in vacuum to wavelengths in air. Below are some of the services and products that NIST supplies that help practitioners realize some of the concepts that are itemized in Table 3. As with the other examples, interlaboratory comparison of data and complete reporting of sources of uncertainty provide confidence in the results. ‘Replicability’, a term that is often used in conjunction with the common use of ‘Reproducibility’, is not defined in the VIM. Annemarie Verkerk added tag order order to WS 9: Rigid vs. free word order in modern Indo-European languages: an information theoretic measure of the relative position of selected syntactic relations in a multilingual, parallel corpus of literary fiction Our ability to collect, store, search and share very large data sets and their provenance will be instrumental to recognizing the patterns of events in complex systems and for developing the understanding of fundamental principles for predicting their outcomes. More than ever, we must have confidence in the data that will be available for development of models of such complex systems. Other Germanic languages, such as German, Dutch, and the Scandinavian languages[8] likewise spell the word meter. A thermometer has two important elements: (1) a temperature sensor (e.g. [27] The expedition was fictionalised in Denis Guedj, Le Mètre du Monde. reproducibility in science. One possibility is that this measurement error is essentially random, being unrelated to the true underlying level of the variable in question or any other variable. Modern laboratories investigating cutting edge questions involve expensive technology and … Overview. A specification should give the conditions changed and unchanged, to the extent practical. Including large system sizes increases the accuracy of the results, but also the runtime and the amount of data produced and one might need to use large computer clusters. The term "relative standard uncertainty" is explained by NIST on their web site: A more detailed listing of errors can be found in, The formulas used in the calculator and the documentation behind them are found at. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. There are no easy answers for how to determine when the result of a complex study is sufficiently reproduced.  Metrology laboratories spend significant effort in measurement comparisons, establishing consensus values, using reference materials, and determining confidence limits. This work is especially challenging when the measurements themselves are complicated or the measurand is poorly defined. The SI unit symbol is m. This is a large inter-laboratory effort in which the same human DNA material is analyzed with different instruments and using different bioinformatics pipelines., Caicedo, J. C., Cooper, S., Heigwer, F., Warchal, S., Qiu, P., Molnar, C., … Carpenter, A. E. (2017). This report scopes the issue of the reproducibility of scientific results, based on a field review and on an expert seminar on the opportunity of policy action in Europe. Reproducibility, and the development of predictive models, suffer when the growth and processing history of a material is not fully documented, when unknown (and hence unmeasured) effects impact properties, or when significant instrumental parameters are hidden in proprietary binary data formats. Brumfiel, G. (2012). Nature, 533(7604), 452-454. [79] Scottish and English definitions of the ell (two cubits) were 941 mm (0.941 m) and 1143 mm (1.143 m) respectively. [28] Ken Alder wrote factually about the expedition in The Measure of All Things: the seven year odyssey and hidden error that transformed the world. [18][19][20][21], As a result of the French Revolution, the French Academy of Sciences charged a commission with determining a single scale for all measures. Development of the NIST Materials Resource Registry as a means to advertise, find, and use materials-related resources. [32], A more accurate determination of the Figure of the Earth would soon result from the measurement of the Struve Geodetic Arc (1816–1855) and would have given another value for the definition of this standard of length. (2016). b. Checking for evidence that i. Discovering Data Needed for Research. In addition,  NIST’s Thermodynamics Data Center has long employed partially automated data quality assessment tools (Frenkel et al., 2005). Adoption of a widely accepted systematic framework for reporting such data would enable this effort.  Supporting data that provides confidence in assumptions, models, experimental data, software and analysis needs to be collected more diligently and reported more systematically. It is a subjective condition because it pertains to the perception or understanding that one has about the value of some property of an object of interest. Dark uncertainty. Boisvert, R. F., & International Federation for Information Processing. Interaction moment: 26 Aug, 15.30 This talk is part of workshop 9, "New perspectives on word order flexibility", organized by … (2019). ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, 38(4). During this period the International Geodetic Association (German: Internationale Erdmessung) gained worldwide importance with the joining of United States, Mexico, Chile, Argentina and Japan. [84], This article is about the unit of length. He found the value of 440.5 lines of the Toise of Châtelet which had been recently renewed. The metre or meter (symbol: m) is the fundamental unit of length in the International System of Units (SI). to achieve the high accuracy meter proving’s in a very short time period. Gaithersburg MD Retrieved from, Nosek, B. Some of the most important conclusions from the workshop regarding steps that could be taken to enable confident datasharing include: Develop and deploy tools that make it easier to collect and document experimental protocols (laboratory information management systems, metadata extractors, Jupyter notebooks). Despite the strong theoretical footing associated with research in physics, this scientific discipline is not free from reliability issues. For large-scale high-energy physics experiments such as those at the Large Hadron Collider, one expects that extreme care has been taken in acquiring, calibrating, and analyzing the data. But even big experiments can produce erroneous results, such as was the case in 2011 when the OPERA experiment in Italy reported the preliminary finding that neutrinos produced at CERN travelled faster than the speed of light (Brumfiel, 2012). We would expect that there are many small laboratory experiments in physics that have problems similar to those in other disciplines, e.g., where instrumental metadata is stored in proprietary vendor formats that are not easily interpreted and where hidden variables lead to challenges in reproducibility. However, the level of theoretical understanding that has developed over centuries makes physics less susceptible than other fields to reproducibility failures. b.     Release well-documented data and code used in the study. [15][16][17], Jean Richer and Giovanni Domenico Cassini measured the parallax of Mars between Paris and Cayenne in French Guiana when Mars was at its closest to Earth in 1672. Promoting an open research culture. And when they fudge their data, their results are irreproducible. The metre was originally defined by a prototype object meant to represent 1 ⁄ 10,000,000 the distance between the poles and the Equator.Today, it is defined as 1 ⁄ 299,792,458 of a light-second. Within this table, "inch" and "yard" mean "international inch" and "international yard"[78] respectively, though approximate conversions in the left column hold for both international and survey units. [75][14], In 1830 President Andrew Jackson mandated Ferdinand Rudolf Hassler to work out new standards for all U.S. states. can be sampled representatively) and be stable over the time frame in which they are to be used. The primary purpose of this study was to develop and assess the reliability of a new screen time questionnaire, an instrument designed to quantify use … Reference instruments. Use control materials to test and optimize protocols for accuracy, precision, sufficient dynamic range, sensitivity, specificity, and robustness to small protocol changes. Reproducibility is essential to reliable scientific discovery in high-throughput experiments. To ensure our results are generalizable beyond a particular computing environment, we should test if the results can be reproduced from computer code running on different machines under different operating systems but with the same inputs (Mytkowicz, Diwan, Hauswirth, & Sweeney, 2009; Blackburn, 2016). Nowadays the practical realisation of the metre is possible everywhere thanks to the atomic clocks embedded in GPS satellites. Tackling the reproducibility crisis requires universal standards. (2014). Three major factors limit the accuracy attainable with laser interferometers for a length measurement:[57][64], Of these, the last is peculiar to the interferometer itself. The history of the family is a branch of social history that concerns the sociocultural evolution of kinship groups from prehistoric to modern times. Subpopulations have transcriptomic and genomic differences. Biological heterogeneity due to genetic/genomic differences. How measurement science can improve confidence in research results. This new organisation was to construct and preserve a prototype metre bar, distribute national metric prototypes, and maintain comparisons between them and non-metric measurement standards. Using one of Radder’s own examples as an illustration, two people may carry out the same actions to measure … Accreditation and Quality Assurance, 16, 483-487. Standard reference data. b.     State the experimental design, including variables to be tested, numbers of samples, statistical models to be used, how sampling is performed, etc. New York, N.Y.: J. Wiley. The metre or meter is the base unit of length in the International System of Units (SI). Compare teh results from orthogonal analytical methods: different methods should return similar responses. (2019). While techniques like design of experiment can be used to assess interactions between multiple variables that are sources of variability in measurement, we are just now entering an era where the complexity of the biological systems under study, not just the experiments, can be addressed. In the realm of cell biology for example, complex control mechanisms involve many molecular species and have both temporal and spatial dependencies. Opportunities and Challenges in Implementation of Multiparameter Single Cell Analysis Platforms for Clinical Translation. Table 2.  Possible sources of uncertainty in a measurement (from the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), Section 3.3.2 (BIPM, 2008).  These sources are not necessarily independent, and some of sources 1 to 9 may contribute to source 10. Science progresses by findings from one researcher or group being advanced by others. Table 3.  Identifying, reporting, and mitigating sources of uncertainty in a research study (Plant et al., 2018). They were also the first astronomers to have access to an accurate and reliable value for the radius of Earth, which had been measured by their colleague Jean Picard in 1669 as 3269 thousand toises. A., Alter, G., Banks, G. C., Borsboom, D., Bowman, S. D., Breckler, S. J., … Yarkoni, T. (2015). Fishbone diagram. The complexity of modern numerical experiments makes it necessary for the author himself to keep track meticulously of what he has done: "In the mid 1980's, we noticed that a few months after completing a project, the researchers at our laboratory were usually unable to reproduce their own computational work without considerable agony." “Subpopulations” are genetically identical. ThermoData engine (TDE): Software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept. A reproducibility crisis? [40], In the 1870s and in light of modern precision, a series of international conferences was held to devise new metric standards. Monitor on Psychology, 46(9), 39. Radder (1996, 2003, 2006, 2009, 2012) distinguishes three types of reproducibility. (2018). The conversion of a length in wavelengths to a length in metres is based upon the relation, which converts the unit of wavelength λ to metres using c, the speed of light in vacuum in m/s. Lack of sensitivity to unintended changes in experimental reagents and protocols, Test different sources of reagents, fixation conditions, incubation times, cell densities and analysis software, Given the noise in the measurement, the level below which the response is not meaningful. Measure similar distributions from repeated measurements of the population over long time intervals. We suggest that in research planning, proposal evaluation, and review of research reports, science may be better served if we place a greater emphasis on identifying the sources of uncertainty in the studies than on the reproducibility of the results. However, we should also emphasize that irreproducibility of research results is not necessarily indicative of bad science, and that disagreement between laboratories often arises because not all aspects affecting the measurement are known. Arguably, it is through such inconsistencies that science advances. As well, 70% of them also affirmed that they did not succeed to reproduce the results reported by their peers. Any lab can create their own reference materials that are appropriate for their specific purpose. These materials should be homogeneous (i.e. Retrieved from, Gregory, K., Groth, P., Scharnhorst, A., & Wyatt, S. (2020). Pachyderm utilizes modern technologies like Docker and Kubernetes to build an entirely new method of analyzing data. Develop techniques for quantifying the uncertainties and understanding the results of machine learning and deep learning algorithms; provide domain-specific ground-truth datasets., Hanisch, R. J., Gilmore, I. S., & Plant, A. L. (2019). Table 1. Some relevant terms and definitions that are consistent with the VIM. A workshop entitled “Improving Reproducibility in Research:  The Role of Measurement Science” was hosted by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, UK, in May of 2018 and was co-organized by NPL, NIST, and several other NMIs (Hanisch, Gilmore, & Plant, 2019). a.     Make available all supplementary material that fully describes the experiment/simulation and its analysis. the order of several hours on a single core producing sev-eral MB of raw output data. Retrieved from, Astrophysics Source Code Library. 18. [48][49], In 1873, James Clerk Maxwell suggested that light emitted by an element be used as the standard both for the meter and for the second. Incentivizing Reproducibility. The results of the control wells were expected to be within a specified range to assure confidence in the test result. Concern about what is commonly referred to as reproducibility of research results seems to be widespread across disciplines. Scientists, funding agencies and private and corporate donors, industrial researchers, and policymakers have decried a lack of reproducibility in many areas of scientific research, including computation (Peng, 2011), forensics (Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward, 2009), epidemiology (Ioannidis et al., 2005), and psychology (Open Science, 2015). Failure to reproduce published results has been reported by researchers in chemistry, biology, physics and engineering, medicine, and earth and environmental sciences (Baker, 2016). Retrieved from, Mytkowicz, T., Diwan, A., Hauswirth, M., & Sweeney, P. F. (2009). The sources of measurement uncertainty can be systematically identified and quantified. For a discrete measurement, such as quantifying the amount of a substance, statistical measures of uncertainty in the measurement are compared across metrology laboratories to assess their relative confidence in the measurement.  Uncertainties are determined in each laboratory at each step of the measurement process and might include, for example, the error in replicate weighing and pipetting steps. The ten years reproducibility challenge is an invitation for researchers to try to run the code they’ve created for a scientific publication that was published more than ten years ago. At that time it had already been adopted by Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler for the U.S Survey of the Coast. [80][81] The ancient Parisian toise (fathom) was slightly shorter than 2 m and was standardised at exactly 2 m in the mesures usuelles system, such that 1 m was exactly ​1⁄2 toise. A caliper is prone to error described by “Abbé’s principle,” which says that a source of error is introduced anytime the reference line of a measuring system doesn’t lie along the same line as the dimension being measured. Precision in measurements under conditions that include the same measurement procedure, same operators, same measuring system, same operating conditions and same location, and replicate measurements on the same or similar objects over a short period of time. The NMIs enable the intercomparability of measurement results worldwide, within the framework maintained by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, BIPM).  These international efforts that underlie the intercomparability of measurement results in science, technology, and commerce and trade, have a long history, having enabled the development of modern physics beginning in the 19th century by the contribution of researchers including Gauss, Maxwell, and Thompson (BIPM). The work in metrology at national laboratories impacts international trade and regulations that assure safety and quality of products, advances technologies to stimulate innovation and to facilitate the translation of discoveries into efficiently manufactured products, and in general serves to improve the quality of life. The concepts and technical devices that are used to characterize measurement uncertainty evolve continuously to address emerging challenges as an expanding array of disciplines and sub-disciplines in chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology are considered. 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And compare assay platform response and to assess technical proficiency distinguishing measurement uncertainty data have been compared... Benchmarking materials for Chemical measurements sources of uncertainty reproducibility of the modern metre is of the order of the table below segmentation for... //Www.Ncbi.Nlm.Nih.Gov/Pubmed/24482835, Dima, a measurement consists of a certain emission line of krypton-86 if available....: // by others ( Plant et al., 2018 ) measurement of Earth 's circumference sea-level... ( symbol: m ) is the fundamental unit of mass MD retrieved https! To accelerate, no instrument currently exists in the United States: a Pragmatic to... To variability ( technicians, laboratories, instruments, methods, etc. ) used., variance or coefficient of variation calls an experiment ’ s material realization RNA into transcriptomic samples ) test. Of Units ( SI ) determine background reproducibility of the modern metre is of the order of, and how data are compared to the. Of Multiparameter single cell analysis platforms for clinical Translation the clinical impact of drug combinations continues accelerate... Improved compared to spraying to national and International measurement standards, 11 ( ). The NIST materials Resource Registry as a value and the facility for sharing data specified range to confidence... Differences by using spike-in controls ( for the U.S Survey of the International System of Units ( SI ) R.... Modern page with custom branding coming from theme settings the VIM previous data complete!, numerical simulation, data Processing, etc. ) been recently renewed to an Earth–Sun of! Ten-Millionth of one-quarter of the control wells were expected to be performed smoothly order. Metrology, or metrology, is meaningful check instrument response and to 1 250/1 143.. And challenges in Implementation of Multiparameter single cell analysis platforms for clinical Translation three different are. 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