what was the corinthian war

The Mausoleum itself, a creation of Greek artists and sculptors but with some barbarian features, has long been known from surviving sculptural fragments and from Greek and Latin literary descriptions. The causes of the Corinthian War lie in the policies pursued by Sparta after its victory in 404. These anti-Spartan parties become aggressive around this time. One powerful Spartan enemy was Thebes, which had emerged much strengthened from the Peloponnesian War. Although they had little to fear from a Spartan presence in Anatolia, hardly a normal object of Theban ambition, Theban alarm can be explained by developments nearer home. By Graham Wrightson. Information and translations of corinthian war in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. On land, the Spartans achieved several early successes in major battles, but were unable to capitalize on their advantage, and the fighting soon became stalemated. The Corinthian church was unusually diverse, and the ethic of appropriate relating that Paul taught wasn’t strong enough to overcome the tensions that these differences were bringing into the community. Those feelings, along with the straightforward hankering at all social levels for the benefits of empire (a strong and well-attested motive that should be emphasized), were to be exploited by Thebans at Athens in 395 in their appeal to Athens to join in war against Sparta. What does corinthian war mean? Initially, Lysander seems to have been at the back of this northward encroachment (good evidence connects him with Thrace and the Chalcidice). In the years immediately following 392, the Athenians made such nuisances of themselves in Anatolia under Thrasybulus, who revived a number of 5th-century Athenian imperial institutions, that Persia—which was anxious to end rebellions not just in Egypt but also in Cyprus—eventually realized where its true interest lay. At the outbreak of the Corinthian War (395–387), Lysander led an army of Sparta’s northern allies into Boeotia and was killed while attacking Haliartus. Nevertheless, the mythical founder of the city was believed to have been King Sisyphus, famed for his punishment in Hades where he was made to forever roll a large boulder up a hill. The expedition was a military failure; Cyrus was killed at the Battle of Cunaxa north of Babylon, and the Greek army had to be extricated and brought back to the Black Sea region. The Spartan king scored a minor victory over the…, In 392, during the Corinthian War, he went with three colleagues to negotiate peace with Sparta, but Athens rejected the terms and exiled the ambassadors. Sparta eventually won the war, but only after the Persians had switched support from Athens to Sparta. In 392 the Spartans and some Corinthian allies captured the port of Lechaeum, but two years later the area of Leuchaeum was the site of a rare defeat for their hoplites, at the hands of lighter troops. Cyprus was included because Athens had been helping the rebel Cypriot king, Evagoras.) The Greek Corinthian order was named for the city of Corinth and was first used in Greek architecture around 425 BC. Aided by the Athenians and the Egyptians, Evagoras extended his rule over the…, …his peltasts skillfully in the Corinthian War (395–387), nearly annihilating a battalion of Spartan hoplites near Corinth in 390. "Agesilaus." At sea, more progress was made against Sparta: Pharnabazus and the Athenian commander Conon won a decisive battle off Cnidus (southern Anatolia) in August 394. The restored Athenian democracy may have been less democratic in certain respects than that of the 5th century, but it was no less suspicious of, and hostile to, Sparta. Those feelings, along with the straightforward hankering at all social levels for the benefits…, In the Corinthian War (395–387) Sparta had two land victories over Athenian allied states and a severe naval defeat at Cnidus by a combined Athenian and Persian fleet. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Corinthian War(395 BC–86 BC), armed conflict between Corinth, Argos, Thebes, and Athens on one side and Sparta on the other. Not being a major Mycenaean centre, Corinth lacks the mythological heritage of other Greek city-states. The Corinthian War was the product of a century of fighting between Greek city-states. Book Combined Arms Warfare in Ancient Greece. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The precipitating cause was a quarrel between Locris, abetted by Boeotia, and Phocis. Athens' growing power was challenged by the Greek city-state of Sparta, starting the Peloponnesian War. As … Unlike Thebes, Corinth had emerged badly from the Peloponnesian War; its prosperous middle class had been eroded, and that made possible a remarkable turn of events: Corinth and democratic Argos, in a unique if short-lived political experiment, became fully merged at this time. Corinth in the Middle of Greece Out of combat, a Greek hoplite would wear the helmet tipped upward for comfort. This war, called the Corinthian War (395–386) because much of it took place on Corinthian territory, was fought against Sparta by a coalition of Athens (with help from Persia), Boeotia, Corinth, and Argos. Philip II In August 338, the Macedonian king Philip had defeated an army of Athenians and Thebans on the plain of Chaeronea , a town in Central Greece ( story ). Corinthian War (395 B.C.–86 B.C. Corinthian order, most ornate of the classic orders of architecture. The Spartans’ defeat of the troops from Thebes, Corinth, Athens, and Argos temporarily broke the force of the coalition. The Greece that Agesilaus had left behind was uneasy under its new Spartan masters, despite the glory of Sparta’s victory over the Athenian fleet at Aegospotami (405), duly commemorated at Delphi, and the personal prestige of Lysander, who may even have received at this time some kind of cult at Samos (though perhaps only after his death in 395). After the destruction of Plataea in 427, Thebes took over Plataea’s vote and some of its territory; that was one reason for Theban strength. That was the beginning of the second Spartan operation in Anatolia, related to the first because the Ten Thousand were eventually able to attach themselves to Thibron, having meanwhile been harried by Tissaphernes. Angered by Sparta's tyrannical overlordship in Greece after the Peloponnesian War, several Greek states took advantage of Sparta's involvement in … He was immediately killed at the battle of Haliartus, however, a grave military loss to Sparta. In fact, Mausolus, despite a brief and cautious insurrectionary moment in the late 360s when he joined the great Revolt of the Satraps (a movement in which there was also tentative Athenian and Spartan participation), is found actively damaging Athenian interest in the Aegean in the 350s. The war was fought on two fronts, on land near Corinth and Thebes and at sea in the Aegean. Since the Corinthian war is the first attempt at achieving a new settlement in Greece after the Peloponnesian war and since it brought about new political alliances and the revival of old imperial rivalries, it is not only an episode in the continual warfare among the … By 395 then, all Sparta’s enemies were ready and willing for war. [1] Both powers had demonstrated a reluctance for head-on war over matters peripheral to their respective spheres of influence. The same conclusion is compelled by such dynastic (rather than strictly satrapal) edifices as the Nereid monument from Lycia (early 4th century) or the caryatids (roof-carrying female sculpted statues) from Lycian Limyra, a place ruled by a Hellenizing prince significantly named Pericles. (Ionian Clazomenae was included because Athens had interfered there and also because its status—whether it was an island or part of the mainland—was unclear. The war might well have ended at this point, especially since Sparta faced a renewed helot threat as a result of the occupation by Pharnabazus and Conon of the island of Cythera. ), armed conflict between Corinth, Argos, Thebes, and Athens on one side and Sparta on the other. The restored Athenian democracy may have been less democratic in certain respects than that of the 5th century, but it was no less suspicious of, and hostile to, Sparta. Agesilaus was recalled to fight in Greece (394), but he had been unable to prevent the formation of the huge Persian fleet that, after his departure, overwhelmingly defeated the Spartan navy at Cnidus. the corinthian war Sparta’s clash against the City States History Jan 29, 2020 0 271 Add to Reading List The Corinthian helmet originated in ancient Greece and took its name from the city-state of Corinth.It was a helmet made of bronze which in its later styles covered the entire head and neck, with slits for the eyes and mouth. Ismenias wanted the Spartans to start the war as it would limit the support from Lacedaemonian allies. These possessions had hitherto been anomalous enclaves of Greek control within basically satrapal Asia, but the King’s Peace surely assigned them formally to Persia in general. In 401 Lysander’s old friend Cyrus—the younger brother of the new Persian king, Artaxerxes II (reigned 404–359)—made an attempt on the throne with Spartan help. Meaning of corinthian war. The Corinthian War was an ancient Greek conflict lasting from 395 BC until 387 BC, pitting Sparta against a coalition of four allied states; Thebes, Athens, Corinth, and Argos; which were initially backed by Persia.The immediate cause of the war was a local conflict in northwest Greece in which both Thebes and Sparta intervened. In fact, Sparta was not even secure in its local dominance in Laconia and Messenia: the old helot problem recurred in 399 with the attempted revolt of Cinadon, already noted in its helot aspect. Corinthian War (395 BC–86 BC), armed conflict between Corinth, Argos, Thebes, and Athens on one side and Sparta on the other. Occasional adventures, such as Greek flirtation with the Revolt of the Satraps in the 360s, do not seriously affect this generalization. There is no agreement, however, that Sparta’s enhanced position was officially recognized by some such description as “champion” of the peace. Sparta eventually won the war, but only after the Persians had switched support from Athens to Sparta. Persian participation on Athens’s side needs a special explanation, which is to be found in two ultimately related sets of operations conducted by Sparta east of the Aegean. For example, in a text from Labranda, a semi-Greek community called the Plataseis confers tax privileges and citizenship on a man from Cos; the grant is ratified by yet another Hecatomnid brother and satrap, Pixodarus. In fact, the winning side was the old combination that had proved victorious in the Peloponnesian War. It was also the latest, not arriving at full development until the middle of the 4th cent. It is therefore not surprising that in 397 the Persians began to build a new fleet to deal with the menace of a Spartan army in Asia. It was in fact a peninsular site. Nor was Athens yet in a mood for peace. The same is true of Sparta’s position under the peace, which was certainly much strengthened. Sparta treated allies poorly and meddled in their affairs which caused anti-Spartans parties. In fact, the winning side was the old combination that had proved victorious in the Peloponnesian War. Sisyphus was succeeded by his son Glaucus and his grandson Bellerophon, whose winged-horse Pegasus became a symbol of the city and … Conon certainly financed and perhaps organized the establishment of an Athenian mercenary force at Corinth, the first commander of which was Iphicrates. Cyrus had been given help in the early stages of his revolt by some Greek cities of Anatolia. But it was Sparta’s campaigning in Asia Minor and their foreign policy which caused those parties to become aggressive. A large curved projection protected the nape of the neck. … When the Persian Tissaphernes, the victor of Cunaxa, threatened reprisals against them, they appealed to Sparta, which sent out Thibron (400). Modern argument centres on the question of whether there were additional clauses, not supplied by the main account (that of Xenophon). The Corinthian War and Iphicrates book. Anatolia now became the political property of Persia and the satraps for the 50 years until Alexander’s arrival. The forces met at the dry bed of the Nemea River, in Corinthian territory, where the Spartans won a decisive victory. When the Phocians appealed to Sparta, Lysander (now back in qualified favour at Sparta) invaded Boeotia. It may have been a further irritant that Sparta was helping another anti-Persian rebel in Egypt; the fact that Egypt maintained its independence of Persia until the 340s was a serious economic loss to the Persian landowners who had been exploiting it at a distance. And a remarkable trilingual inscription in Lycian, Greek, and Aramaic (a Semitic script used for convenience in many parts of the Persian empire), found in 1973, proves the family’s interests to have spread eastward into Lycia; the text illustrates the cultural, social, and religious heterogeneity of southwestern Anatolia in the period before Alexander’s arrival. The Corinthian War (395–387/6 bce) pitted Sparta against a coalition formed by Athens, Thebes, Argos, and Corinth, and took its name from the main area of military operations.The war originated in the dissatisfaction of Sparta's former allies during the Peloponnesian War with Sparta's taking advantage of the victory to her own exclusive benefit. Hellenization was well under way before he came. In 431 BC, one of the factors leading to the Peloponnesian War was the dispute between Corinth and Athens over Corcyra, which probably stemmed from the … The major Hellenizing force, however, was his son Mausolus (Maussollos on the inscriptions), satrap from 377 to 353, who gave his name to the Mausoleum, the tomb he perhaps commissioned for himself. From 395 BC to 387 BC, the Corinthian War involved a handful of ancient Greek city-states, including the mighty Spartans and the popular Athenians. Hecatomnus was appointed satrap of the new separate satrapy of Caria, perhaps in the mid-390s, as a counterpoise to Sparta. A little farther away, Sparta’s former Peloponnesian and extra-Peloponnesian allies were unhappy with what they saw as alarming extensions of Spartan territorial interests, though in fact some of these were very traditional. One difference after 386 lay in the status of possessions up to then held by various Greek islands on the mainland of Anatolia. He ruled his pocket principality under light Persian authority until 377 and made dedications in Greek script at a number of local sites and sanctuaries. At the least (and Xenophon, a great admirer of the Spartan king, attributes to him some very grand ideas indeed) Agesilaus seems to have wanted to establish a zone of rebel satraps in western Anatolia. Argos’s merger with Corinth was cancelled, and, more important (in view of the relative power of the states concerned), Thebes had to relinquish the control of Boeotia that it had been exercising in an unrecognized but progressively real way since 446. The activities of those 4th-century satraps (and of dynasts without the satrapal title but recognized by Persia) are of great interest, though documented more by inscriptions and archaeology than by written sources. Corinthian-style helmet, bronze, Greek, c. 600–575. The ensuing Peace of Antalcidas, or King’s Peace, of 386 specified that Asia, including Cyprus and Clazomenae, was to belong to the king of Persia. This was an outright betrayal of Emperor Artaxerxes. A sizable force was sent out from Sparta to challenge this force. Yet because that was always a direction in which Sparta expanded if given the chance, Sparta did not pull out of central Greece during Lysander’s temporary eclipse after 403. River, in Corinthian territory, where the Spartans for supporting Cyrus, and information from Britannica... You are agreeing to news, offers, and Athens on one side and Sparta on the part the. S colony, Syracuse War over matters peripheral to their respective spheres of influence heritage of other Greek.. Question of whether there were additional clauses, not supplied by the Greek city-state of what was the corinthian war invaded.... City of Corinth and Thebes and Corinth, Athens, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica side and on... 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